Youth Suicide prevention in Nepal
Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where high suicide rates in a few countries with large populations account for a majority of the world’s suicides. Efforts to address the problem have been unsystematic but there is increasing recognition by governments, community members, and professional groups of the need to do more.
Each year worldwide approximately one million individuals die of suicide, 10-20 million attempt suicide, and 50-120 million are profoundly affected by the suicide or attempted suicide of a close relative or associate. Asia accounts for 60 percent of the world’s suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year.
In Nepal suicide is growing public health issues. Nepal police reveals that everybody 11 Nepal people complete suicide. Attempted suicide is illegal in Nepal and people who attempt suicide when caught are subject to imprisonment, fines or both; therefore, any suicide figures will underestimate the incidence. Families usually only bring patients to the hospital as a medical emergency, are likely to hide previous episodes of deliberate self-harm and may attribute suicidal death to other causes both for legal reasons and because the family of those with mental illness may face social rejection and discrimination. In Nepal we don’t have national base data in suicide. The report which comes only by individual resources we do not have actual fact data.so that it is difficult to say trend of suicide rate in Nepal.
Suicide is a significant public health problem for school age young adults. Children in Nepal must pass the SLC exam to attend college-level schools from age 16, a strict requirement that has earned the test the nickname of “iron gate”. Every year some students take their life after failing the SLC exam, as they can’t face the social, family and friends pressure on them. Seven schoolgirls committed suicide in Nepal after failing their School Leaving Certificate (SLC) exams in last years. Such repeated incident has raised serious concern. As results, it has become increasingly important for academic personal and guardians to understand and engage in effective mental health and suicide prevention and intervention methods.
Role of school and teacher
Schools can help prevent suicide by providing teachers and students with the mechanisms necessary to identify and respond to students who are at risk of suicide as well as other risk and self-destructive behaviors. As a teacher in the position to reach out to student at risk for suicide Youth suicides, or suicide attempts, rarely take place in schools, but many young students who are at risk of suicide attend school and exhibit warning signs. If teachers recognize theses signs and take action they can prevent death or injury and reduce emotional suffering.
It takes time and courage to reach out to students on a personal level, but your interest can be a lifeline to a child in crisis. Students especially those with emotional or family troubles need support, and school can be a vital part of that support. School may be the last positive social connection for young people from dysfunctional families or who are isolated from their peers.
Role of society
Many students may have committed suicide due to pressure, and the accompanying guilt, of not being able to meet the expectations of their parents and society. In Nepal SLC exam is stigmatization by society, parents, media and some business oriented education institute. Every year we are losing student by suicide because of this stigmatization. Parent notification is a vital part of suicide prevention. Parents need to be informed and actively involved in decisions regarding their child’s welfare. Youth who feel suicidal are not likely to seek help directly; however, parents, school personnel, and society members can recognize the warning signs and take immediate action to keep the youth safe.
Role of education systems
Although the government has floated the idea to cancel the SLC board by allowing the higher secondary education board to conduct the final exams of school education, the idea is yet to materialize At a time when higher secondary schools are competing with each other to pull the students, the suicide of student failing SLC exams has sent a shock wave. Although the failed percentage in bachelor’s level and higher secondary education level is much higher than in SLC, there are rare cases of suicide at these levels, with highly coverage in the media about passing SLC as if that was the greatest achievement, psychologically everybody sees SLC certificate as a solution for the beginning of new life. Failing high number of student is the cause of suicide in student. The percent of fail student clear revealed that education policy is completely failed and its need currently revised.
Suicide Risk Factors
Certain characteristics are associated with increased suicide risk. These include:
- Mental illness including depression, conduct disorders, and substance abuse
- Family stress/dysfunction, family over expectation towards children
- Environmental risks, including presence of a firearm in the home. Suicide history in family and society
- Situational crises (i.e., traumatic death of a loved one, physical or sexual abuse, family violence, etc.).
Suicide Warning Signs
Many suicidal youth demonstrate observable behaviors that signal their suicidal thinking. These include:
- Suicidal threats in the form of direct and indirect statements.
- Suicide notes and plans.
- Prior suicidal behavior.
- Making final arrangements (e.g., making funeral arrangements, writing a will, giving away prized possessions).
- Preoccupation with death.
- Changes in behavior, appearance, thoughts and/or feelings.
What to Do
. When a youth gives signs that they may be considering suicide, the following actions should be taken:
- Remain calm.
- Ask the youth directly if he or she is thinking about suicide.
- Focus on your concern for their wellbeing and avoid being accusatory.
- Reassure them that there is help and they will not feel like this forever.
- Do not judge.
- Provide constant supervision. Do not leave the youth alone.
- Remove means for self-harm.
Get help: Although we have very few clinical psychologist, psychiatric and mental health social worker in Nepal.it is very necessary to consults with them to get proper help for avoid suicide in family and society members.